In this report, MRC has reviewed the community at Dun Ei, a fishing village 180 kilometres northwest of Phnom Penh, where has been making a living through fishing along the Pursat River for generations.
In recent years, however, river structures, such as dams and dikes, have been preventing fish from migrating upstream to their spawning and rearing grounds. For most of the year, fish have become scarce along the Pursat River, forcing villagers to leave their homes in search of work. Those left behind face difficult livelihood and an uncertain future.
To address the problem, the Cambodian Government partnered with the U.S. Department of Interior (USDOI), the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), and the Mekong River Commission (MRC) to install a fish passage. A concrete ladder was constructed at Kbal Hong Dam in the Pursat River, a main tributary of Tonle Sap Lake, Southeast Asia's largest lake, to provide a route for more than 100 fish species to swim past the 4-metre-high barrier, reopening around 100 kilometres of the river.
Horm Sovon, a 49-year-old fisher who is among hundreds of villagers to benefit from the project, said she could only catch fish three months per year. Now she is catching less fish than before, but there are fish to catch every day.
I have a stable income now, and I am happy that other villagers both upstream and downstream are also able to catch fish, she underlined.
The situation faced by the villagers at Dun Ei is typical of a wider problem affecting communities across the Mekong River Basin. In the Lower Mekong Basin, a total fish catch was estimated at 2.3 million tones (US$ 11 billion). The sector supports the livelihoods of more than 60 million people.
However, the fisheries sector is threatened by tens of thousands of dams, dikes, weirs, and other water structures that have been built to store water for irrigation. According to the MRC, many of these structures make it difficult for fish to pass, affecting fish reproduction across the region.
Together with pressure from other water resources development projects, such as hydropower dams, increased populations, and exploitative fishing, the MRC Council Study estimated that the net present value (NPV) of the fisheries sector will decline by US$16.5 million by 2020 and US$22.6 million by 2040 in all the lower Mekong countries: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
The Kbal Hong ladder is considered one of the most effective fish passages in the Mekong region and stands as an example of effective regional collaboration.
This successful case implies that the construction of fish passages in the basin and some of its tributaries is essential, Dr. An Pich Hatda, MRC Secretariat Chief Executive Officer, said. Improved fish production will enhance the resilience of the entire ecosystem, benefit local economies and sustained local community livelihoods.
Deputy Director of the Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Tob Chann Aun, attributes its success to the technical support provided by the international partners, and also to the MRC guidelines, which enabled identification of the Kbal Hong Dam as a priority for fish passage construction.
"Kbal Hong fish passage is a unique demonstration site that can be replicated elsewhere in the country or in the region," Mr. Chann Aun said.
The Kbal Hong fish passage will serve as a model for 22 fish passages that have been prioritised by the Cambodian Government along the Pursat River.
Other countries in the Mekong region are also benefiting from this joint effort. Ten barriers in Lao PDR, six in Thailand and three in Viet Nam have been identified for fish passage construction. Installations of fish passage in Lao PDR have been completed while preparations for fish passage construction in Thailand are well underway.
I believe, through this partnership, we will be able to protect and restore river habitat, said Mr. Boonsong Sricharoenham, Senior Fisheries Ecology Expert of Thai Department of Fisheries.
Source: Agency Kampuchea Press